((Above: King David as a boy slays the Philistine champion Goliath))
The patriarch Abraham's other son Isaac had sons too, and one of them was named Jacob. Later his name was changed to Israel. Jacob/Israel had 12 sons. All Jews can trace their lineage back to one of these sons, the 12 "tribes" of Israel.
You probably already know the story of how they got there, but after about 400 years of slavery in Egypt, the descendants of these 12 tribes were set free from Egypt and led by a man called Moses out of Egypt.
Then what? You may well ask. Well, they tried to return to the land in the general area of their ancestors. They believed God had promised that land to their ancestor Abraham and his descendants forever.
As you probably guessed, there were already people living on that land now. Their land to be was now called the land of Canaan, so you can bet there were Canaanites on it already. But the Children of Israel prevailed, and after many hardships, carved out a piece of the pie to live on. Years later, maybe another 200-300 years later, in 1000 BC, they had a king called David. Here we stop drifting in and out between myth and "recorded" history and become historically factual.
In 1000 BC, the Hebrews were living in two kingdoms under 2 historical kings. The one tribe called Judah (after the son named Judah) was one kingdom, and all the other 11 were the other kingdom, called, simply, Israel (instead of naming all the other tribes. Makes sense.)
During the last 7 years of his reign, King David was the ruler of both kingdoms. The United Kingdoms, as it were, the first king having been killed. Then David's son Solomon (another long story) became king and kept the kingdoms united. Solomon was Israel's greatest king. From this you can see that the Israelis controlled the land for 47 years about 3000 years ago. Not so much. But they still lived on the land, as did the current-day Palestinians, continuously, at least some of them, until this day.
Early on, the two kingdoms, before their unification, were going at each other and in between were still fighting with the other inhabitants of the area, the Philistines, who are today called Palestinians. That too, is another story. Anyway, they are still fighting. Fighting over the same land. Some might say both sides are really pig-headed. Not me.